Apixaban is a direct factor Xa inhibitor approved for the treatment and prevention of thromboembolic disease. There is a lack of data regarding its reversal in cases of acute bleeding or prior to emergency surgery that needs addressing.Objectives:
This study assessed whether a four-factor prothrombin complex concentrate (4F-PCC; Beriplex®/Kcentra®, CSL Behring) can effectively reverse apixaban-associated bleeding in an in vivo rabbit model and evaluated the correlations between in vivo hemostasis and in vitro coagulation parameters.Methods:
For dose-finding purposes, anesthetized rabbits were treated with a single intravenous dose of apixaban (800–1600 μg kg−1) and, following a standardized kidney incision, volume of blood loss and time to hemostasis were measured. In a subsequent study phase, anesthetized rabbits were treated with apixaban 1200 μg kg−1 followed by 4F-PCC (6.25–100 IU kg−1), and the effects on the same bleeding parameters were assessed. In parallel, coagulation parameters were monitored.Results:
Dose-dependent increases in time to hemostasis and total blood loss were observed post apixaban administration. Preincision treatment with 4F-PCC resulted in a statistically significant reversal in bleeding time (all doses) and volume (doses ≥ 12.5 IU kg−1). Of the coagulation parameters measured, thrombin generation initiated using the RD reagent (phospholipids only) was the most sensitive to in vivo measures of 4F-PCC's hemostatic efficacy, although some correlations were also observed for prothrombin time and whole blood clotting time.Conclusions:
In this rabbit model of acute hemorrhage, 4F-PCC showed potential for reversing the bleeding effects of apixaban. Clinical data in apixaban-treated patients are needed to confirm these results.