Factor (F)VIIIa activity and stability depends on the non-covalent association of the A2 subunit with the A1/A3C1C2 dimer, but the interactions that contribute to A2 association are not well defined. Previous work had shown that D666A and Y1792F mutations at the A2-A3 interface resulted in increased FVIIIa decay, suggesting that the residues were involved in bonding interactions important for FVIIIa stability.Objectives:
Several potential hydrogen bonding partners of D666 and Y1792 across the A2-A3 interface were selected from the low-resolution FVIII crystal structure, and we used mutagenesis and biochemical analysis to examine the bonding interactions occurring at D666 and Y1792.Methods:
Using a series of stability and functional analyses, we analyzed FVIII variants in which D666 and Y1792 were each swapped with the residues of potential bonding partners.Results and conclusions:
We present evidence for hydrogen bonds between D666 and S1787 and between Y1792 and T657 that are important for FVIIIa stability. D666S/S1787D and T657Y/Y1792T variants each displayed wild-type (WT)-like FVIIIa stability and performed like WT FVIII in a series of functional analyses, whereas D666S, S1787D, and Y1792T single variants showed increased FVIIIa decay and a T657Y variant had little FVIIIa activity. These results suggest that WT hydrogen bonds are disrupted with the single mutations but maintained in the swap variants. Furthermore, mutation of D666 and S1788 to cysteine resulted in disulfide bond formation across the A2-A3 interface, confirming the close proximity of D666 and S1787, and this covalent attachment of the A2 subunit significantly increased FVIIIa stability.