A case control study was conducted to test the hypothesis that plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 (PAI-1) 4G/5G gene polymorphism confers an increased risk for myocardial infarction (MI) in patients with known coronary atherosclerosis.Methods
One hundred fifty-six consecutive patients who presented with acute MI and 111 stable coronary artery disease (SCAD) patients with documented critical coronary artery stenoses were prospectively enrolled. PAI-1 4G/5G gene polymorphism and conventional atherosclerotic risk factors were studied in all patients. PAI-1 4G/5G gene polymorphism was studied in another 281 healthy blood bank donors.Results
The frequency 4G4G genotype was significantly higher in the MI group as compared to SCAD group (32.7% vs. 15.3%, P = 0.001) while it was not statistically significant between MI and healthy control groups (32.7% vs. 26.0%, P = 0.136). Comparing with healthy controls SCAD group had significantly lower frequency of 4G4G genotype (P = 0.024). In comparison with SCAD group PAI-1 4G/4G genotype, male sex and smoking habits favored to MI in univariate analysis with a P value of less than 0.2. These variables were included in multivariate regression model to estimate the associated risk for MI. PAI-1 4G/4G genotype was the only independent variable (OR 2.67, 95%CI 1.43–4.96, P = 0.002) associated with MI in this regression model. Comparing with healthy control group 4G4G genotype was not associated with MI (OR 1.38, 95%CI 0.90–2.12). However, presence of 4G4G genotype had a protective effect against development of SCAD (OR 0.52, 96%CI 0.29–0.92).Conclusion
Compared to patients with critical coronary stenoses, PAI-1 4G/4G genotype was found to be an independent predictor for development of MI in this population. PAİ-1 4G4G genotype have a protective effect against development of high grade stable coronary stenoses.