Lung Cancer Screening with Chest Computed Tomography in People Living with HIV: A Review by the Multidisciplinary CANCERVIH Working Group

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A shift in mortality and morbidity has been observed in people living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLWHIV) from acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) to non-AIDS diseases. Lung cancer has the highest incidence rates among all the non–AIDS-defining malignancies and is associated with mortality rates that exceed those of other cancers. Strategies to increase lung cancer survival in PLWHIV are needed. Lung cancer screening with chest LDCT has been shown to be efficient in the general population at risk. The objective of this review is to discuss lung cancer screening with chest computed tomography in PLWHIV. Lung cancer screening in PLWHIV is feasible. Whether PLWHIV could benefit from an age threshold for screening that is earlier than the minimum age of 55 years usually required in the general population still needs further investigation. Studies evaluating smoking cessation programs and how they could be articulated with lung cancer screening programs are also needed in PLWHIV.

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