In approximately 60% of patients with NSCLC who are receiving EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors, resistance develops through the acquisition of EGFR T790M mutation. We aimed to demonstrate that a highly sensitive and quantitative next-generation sequencing analysis of EGFR mutations from urine and plasma specimens is feasible.Methods:
Short footprint mutation enrichment next-generation sequencing assays were used to interrogate EGFR activating mutations and the T790M resistance mutation in urine or plasma specimens from patients enrolled in TIGER-X (NCT01526928), a phase 1/2 clinical study of rociletinib in previously treated patients with EGFR mutant–positive advanced NSCLC.Results:
Of 63 patients, 60 had evaluable tissue specimens. When the tissue result was used as a reference, the sensitivity of EGFR mutation detection in urine was 72% (34 of 47 specimens) for T790M, 75% (12 of 16) for L858R, and 67% (28 of 42) for exon 19 deletions. With specimens that met a recommended volume of 90 to 100 mL, the sensitivity was 93% (13 of 14 specimens) for T790M, 80% (four of five) for L858R, and 83% (10 of 12) for exon 19 deletions. A comparable sensitivity of EGFR mutation detection was observed in plasma: 93% (38 of 41 specimens) for T790M, 100% (17 of 17) for L858R, and 87% (34 of 39) for exon 19 deletions. Together, urine and plasma testing identified 12 additional T790M-positive cases that were either undetectable or inadequate by tissue test. In nine patients monitored while receiving treatment with rociletinib, a rapid decrease in urine T790M levels was observed by day 21.Conclusions:
DNA derived from NSCLC tumors can be detected with high sensitivity in urine and plasma, enabling diagnostic detection and monitoring of therapeutic response from these noninvasive “liquid biopsy” samples.