Impairment in aerobic fitness is a potential modifiable risk factor for postoperative complications. In this randomized controlled trial, we hypothesized that a high-intensity interval training (HIIT) program enhances cardiorespiratory fitness before lung cancer surgery and therefore reduces the risk of postoperative complications.Methods:
Patients with operable lung cancer were randomly assigned to usual care (UC) (n = 77) or preoperative rehabilitation based on HIIT (Rehab) (n = 74). Maximal cardiopulmonary exercise testing and the 6-minute walk test were performed twice before surgery. The primary outcome measure was a composite of death and in-hospital postoperative complications.Results:
The groups were well balanced in terms of patient characteristics. During the preoperative waiting period (median 25 days), the peak oxygen consumption and the 6-minute walking distance increased (median +15%, interquartile range, 25th to 75 percentile [IQR25%–75%, %] = +9% to +22%, p = 0.003 and +15%, IQR25%–75% = +8% to +28%, p < 0.001, respectively) in the Rehab group, whereas peak oxygen consumption declined in the UC group (median –8%, IQR25%–75% = –16% to 0%], p = 0.005). The primary end point did not differ significantly between the two groups: at least one postoperative complication developed in 27 of the 74 patients (35.5%) in the Rehab group and 39 of 77 patients (50.6%) in the UC group (p = 0.080). Notably, the incidence of pulmonary complications was lower in the Rehab compared with in the UC group (23% versus 44%, p = 0.018), owing to a significant reduction in atelectasis (12.2% versus 36.4%, p < 0.001), and this decrease was accompanied by a shorter length of stay in the postanesthesia care unit (median –7 hours, IQR25%–75% = –4 to –10).Conclusions:
In this randomized controlled trial, preoperative HIIT resulted in significant improvement in aerobic performances but failed to reduce early complications after lung cancer resection.