Simultaneous longitudinal hormonometabolic-physiologic (cardiopulmonary) profiles were measured in 14 nonseptic trauma/general surgery (T/GS) patients and in ten patients with Gram-negative abdominal surgical sepsis. The physiologic state classification system was used as the frame of reference. There were no response differences between the T and GS groups: they had A State responses. The sepsis (S) patients initially had exaggerated A State responses with significant changes in glucose, fat, amino acid, and glucagon plasma levels relative to T/GS. The S patients who survived (four) demonstrated profiles as in T/GS. The S patients who expired (six) progressively evolved an unbalanced, hyperdynamic B State response with progressive elevations of glucose, lactate, aromatic and branched-chain amino acids and glucagon, and low ketone bodies. There is definite correlation over time between metabolic and physiologic responses; the physiologic responses reflect the metabolic responses; the metabolic responses are consistent with a peripheral energy-fuel deficit.