Resuscitative Strategies in the Trauma Patient: The Past, the Present, and the Future

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Over the last decade, trends in fluid resuscitation have changed dramatically as have our practices. Research is driving trauma centers across the globe to initiate modifications in fluid resuscitation of the hemorrhagic trauma patients both in the prehospital and intrahospital arena. This is being done by combining the theory of permissive hypotension and damage control surgery with hemostatic resuscitation as the preferred methods of resuscitation in patients with hemorrhagic shock. The literature illustrates that previous strategies we considered to be beneficial are actually detrimental to the outcomes of these severely injured patients. This complex and continuously changing adaptation in practice must be made without losing our strategic focus of improvement of outcomes and recognition of the morbidity associated with bleeding of the trauma patient. Designating limits on large-volume crystalloid resuscitation will prevent cellular injury. These wiser resuscitation strategies are key in the efforts to reduce mortality and to improve outcomes. This article is to serve as a review of each of the resuscitative fluid strategies as well as new methods of trauma resuscitation.

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