Health-Related Adverse Events and Associated Factors in Recreational Divers With Different Certification Levels

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There is a paucity of research on diving-related health issues and associated factors. This study aimed to examine the health problems encountered during diving and to ascertain the factors associated with adverse events.


The sample of this descriptive study consisted of 132 recreational divers from diving schools in Ankara. The researchers collected the data using a questionnaire developed according to the relevant literature.


Diving-related health issues including barotraumas, nitrogen narcosis, and decompression sickness were mostly dependent on depth. The divers with higher certification levels witnessed diving-related adverse events more frequently and a significant increase in health problems with greater depth attained (p < 0.05). More experienced divers with longer duration of diving (p < 0.05) and greater number of dives reported more health problems associated with diving between 41 and 65 m. Adverse events did not differ according to diving-related educational features (p > 0.05).


The finding implies the importance of adherence to the depth limit of 40 m for recreational divers, being a slow ascend diver, and utilization of a buddy system in order to prevent diving-related adverse events. A data recording system related to diving and regulations particularly for tourist divers in the countries attracting tourists is required.

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