High Prevalence of Nasopharyngeal Colonization by Staphylococcus aureus Among Children with HIV-1 Infection in Extreme Southern Brazil

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Abstract

Objectives

To compare nasopharyngeal colonization between children with HIV-1 infection and those without HIV-1 infection, with special emphasis on nasopharyngeal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus.

Methods

This hospital-based cross-sectional study was carried out in the Paediatric Day Hospital of a teaching hospital. Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected in 93 children aged up to 18 years old born to HIV-positive mothers (31 children with HIV-1 infection and 62 age-matched non-infected children).

Results

The prevalence of nasopharyngeal colonization by S. aureus was higher among children with HIV-1 infection compared with those without HIV-1 infection (45.16% vs. 12.9%, p=0.001). After adjusting all potential confounders, HIV-1 infection was an independent risk factor for nasopharyngeal colonization by S. aureus, with a prevalence ratio of 4.29 (95% confidence interval: 1.72–10.70).

Conclusion

Children with HIV-1 infection had a higher prevalence of nasopharyngeal colonization by S. aureus than children without HIV-1 infection. Most of the isolated strains of S. aureus were methicillin-susceptible.

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