Prenatal and Postnatal Survival of Fetal Tetralogy of Fallot: A Meta-analysis of Perinatal Outcomes and Associated Genetic Disorders

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Abstract

Objectives

The aim of this systematic review was to compare the postnatal outcomes, genetic testing results, and sonographic findings in 3 subtypes of tetralogy of Fallot.

Methods

Thirty-six articles from the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were selected for this review. The postnatal outcomes, karyotyping results, and sonographic findings of fetal tetralogy of Fallot with pulmonary stenosis, tetralogy of Fallot with pulmonary atresia, and tetralogy of Fallot with an absent pulmonary valve were collected and compared.

Results

The survival rates (termination of pregnancy was considered fetal death) for prenatally diagnosed tetralogy of Fallot with pulmonary atresia and tetralogy of Fallot with an absent pulmonary valve at the end of neonatal period were significantly lower than the rate for tetralogy of Fallot with pulmonary stenosis (P < .05). The survival rate for tetralogy of Fallot with pulmonary atresia was also lower at birth (P < .001). Major chromosomal anomalies were more frequently detected in tetralogy of Fallot with pulmonary stenosis (P< .05); conversely, 22q11 deletion was present more often in fetuses with tetralogy of Fallot with pulmonary atresia and tetralogy of Fallot with an absent pulmonary valve (P < .001). Compared to tetralogy of Fallot with pulmonary stenosis, a right aortic arch was more associated with tetralogy of Fallot with pulmonary atresia (32.6%; P < .05), and the ductus arteriosus was almost always absent in tetralogy of Fallot with an absent pulmonary valve (87.5%; P < .001).

Conclusions

The postnatal outcomes, genetic testing results, and sonographic findings are different among subtypes of tetralogy of Fallot. Documenting those details at diagnosis can help specialists better counsel their patients.

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