Dissipative energy loss derived from vector flow mapping represents the viscous dissipation of turbulent blood flow. We aimed to determine the left ventricular (LV) energy loss in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD).Methods
Patients with ESRD and a preserved LV ejection fraction, who consisted of a group receiving peritoneal dialysis, a group receiving hemodialysis, and a group receiving preparation for dialysis initiation, were examined by echocardiography; a group of healthy control participants were examined as well. Vector flow mapping analysis was then performed from the apical 4-chamber view to calculate the energy loss during diastole and systole in the left ventricle.Results
Conventional transthoracic echocardiography and LV energy loss calculations were successfully performed in 63 cases and 50 controls. The patients with ESRD had significantly higher diastolic energy loss [median (interquartile range), 71.73 (46.08–106.75) versus 23.32 (17.17–29.26) mW/m; P < .001] and higher systolic energy loss [25.28 (19.03–33.93) versus 12.52 (9.35–16.47) mW/m; P < .001]. A significant difference in diastolic energy loss between the peritoneal dialysis and preparation groups was found [54.92 (39.28–89.94) versus 84.82 (62.58–171.4) mW/m; P = .04]. In patients with ESRD, the log-transformed diastolic energy loss had a significant association with the peak early diastolic transmitral flow velocity (P = .011), peak early diastolic transmitral flow velocity–to–peak early diastolic mitral annular flow velocity ratio (P = .001), LV mass index (P = .017), and heart rate (P = .003).Conclusions
Impaired blood flow efficiency was detected in patients with ESRD by using dissipative energy loss derived from vector flow mapping. The energy loss value could be a novel parameter for evaluating the ventricular workload of uremic hearts in terms of fluid mechanics.