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The purpose of this study was to determine the value of resistive index (RI) variability in predicting cerebrovascular complications during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO).This retrospective study included 36 infants treated by ECMO. The RI was measured on daily transfontanellar duplex sonography, obtained first without fontanel compression and then after gentle compression with the transducer. The age at ECMO cannulation, sex, gestational age at birth, method of delivery, indication, and type and duration of ECMO were recorded.There was a statistically significant difference in RI variability in infants who developed cerebrovascular complications as opposed to those who did not (P = .002). Resistive index variability of 10% or greater on any day was associated with an increased risk for cerebrovascular complications (P = .0482; χ2 = 3.9). Variability in the first 5 days was significantly higher than on following days (P < .0001). The age at ECMO cannulation showed a significant difference, with mean ± SD values of 1.1 ± 0.9 days in the complications group and 2.7 ± 2.2 days in the no-complications group (P = .043).Resistive index variability of 10% or greater on any day had a statistically significant risk of cerebrovascular complication development. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation cannulation at younger than 3 days conferred an increased risk of cerebrovascular complications.