We determined what metabolic features of the 24-hour urine predict calcium oxalate dihydrate in kidney stones. Prior studies have suggested that low urine magnesium, high urine calcium, high calcium-to-oxalate ratio and high urine supersaturation with respect to calcium oxalate monohydrate predict calcium oxalate dihydrate.Materials and Methods
Stone analyses and results from 2, 24-hour pretreatment urine collections from 96 patients with nephrolithiasis were drawn from 3 kidney stone prevention centers. Standard stone risk measurements were made on the urine, including supersaturation for calcium oxalate monohydrate, brushite and uric acid.Results
The main differences in metabolic urine findings were between patients with no calcium oxalate dihydrate and those with any calcium oxalate dihydrate in stones. Percent calcium oxalate dihydrate itself did not correlate with urine findings. Patients with no calcium oxalate dihydrate in stones showed a biphasic pattern of urine calcium oxalate monohydrate supersaturation, about half had values below almost any found among patients with calcium oxalate dihydrate in stones (less than 7) and the rest overlapped with the calcium oxalate dihydrate group. Except for higher calcium oxalate monohydrate supersaturation, patients with calcium oxalate dihydrate in stones had higher urine calcium excretion and lower urine citrate concentrations, even after calcium oxalate monohydrate supersaturation was considered.Conclusions
Patients with low calcium oxalate monohydrate supersaturation (less than 7) are unlikely to have calcium oxalate dihydrate in renal stones. However, many patients with no calcium oxalate dihydrate have higher calcium oxalate monohydrate supersaturation values, and so prediction of calcium oxalate dihydrate or its absence from urine findings is imperfect. Urine magnesium and the calcium-to-oxalate ratio are unrelated to calcium oxalate dihydrate.