We retrospectively evaluated the records of 21 patients a mean of 46.1 years old with ureteral stones that had been impacted for greater than 2 months to determine predisposing factors for stricture formation.Materials and Methods
Between January 1993 and September 1996, 21 patients were referred for ureteral stones that had remained unchanged in location for at least 2 months. In 11 patients previous attempts at stone removal had failed. Each patient underwent successful stone extraction by retrograde or percutaneous antegrade ureteroscopy, or laparoscopic or open ureterolithotomy. Outcome was determined by reviewing the clinical records and radiographic studies, including excretory urography and nephrostography.Results
Average duration of stone impaction before definitive treatment was 8.8 months (range 2 to 48) and mean stone size was 10.3 mm. (range 1 to 30). All stones were calcium based. There were 3 proximal, 8 mid and 10 distal ureteral calculi. At a mean followup of 7 months ureteral strictures developed in 5 patients (24%) at the previous stone site. Mean duration of stone impaction was 11 months (range 5 to 17) in patients with stricture versus 8.2 months (range 2 to 48) in those with no stricture. Four of the 5 strictures occurred in patients who had had iatrogenic ureteral perforation during previous unsuccessful attempts at stone removal.Conclusions
Ureteral stone impaction more than 2 months in duration is associated with a 24% incidence of stricture formation. Ureteral perforation at the site of the stone was identified as the primary risk factor for stricture formation in these cases.