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Although complete necrosis of a transplanted renal allograft ureter is uncommon, it is a difficult complication to manage. Long or multisegment ureteral strictures, most commonly ischemic in nature, are formidable problems for the reconstructive surgeon. We reviewed 655 consecutive renal allografts to determine the incidence of these complex ureteral complications, and the effectiveness and morbidity of complete ureteral reconstruction using bladder alone.

Materials and Methods

Of 20 patients (3.0%) who required ureteral reconstruction 9 had complete ureteral necrosis and 11 had long (4) or multisegment (7) ureteral strictures. Total ureteral reconstruction was performed using a modified Boari flap in 15 patients and direct pyelovesicostomy in 5. All patients were followed postoperatively with renal ultrasound as well as99m technetium mercaptoacetyltriglycine-3 diuretic renal scans. Mean followup was 28 months.


All 20 patients had successful reconstruction of the transplant ureter using bladder for substitution. Four patients had persistent dilatation of the renal collecting system without evidence of obstruction as measured by diuretic renal scan (half-time less than 20 minutes). Reflux into the transplant renal pelvis occurred in 6 patients. Two patients had reversible deterioration in renal function secondary to rejection episodes. Of the group reconstructed via Boari bladder flap prolonged stenting (mean 27 days) and prolonged high volume drain output (mean 22 days) were not uncommon.


Complete ureteral reconstruction is a complex problem in the renal allograft recipient. Using the bladder for reconstruction via Boari flap or direct pyelovesicostomy is an effective technique with minimal morbidity.

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