With the patient standing and supine we determine the differences in dynamic changes of the bladder neck and directions of dynamic bladder neck displacement.Materials and Methods
To evaluate the dynamic movement of the bladder neck we recruited into the study 78 consecutive women 27 to 69 years old with various urogynecological complaints. The anatomical changes of the bladder neck from rest to maximal straining and from rest to holding were evaluated and compared with the patients supine and standing.Results
Except for bladder neck rotational angle with the patient standing, all parameters were significantly different from corresponding measurements with the patient supine. Mean rotational angle of rest to maximal straining plus or minus standard deviation was 39.4 +/- 18.9 degrees when standing versus 39.8 +/- 23.4 degrees when supine (p >0.05). The distances between the bladder neck and symphysis pubis at rest, and during maximal straining and holding the bladder neck in the supine position were significantly longer than those in the standing position. The direction of bladder neck displacement from rest to maximal straining was more caudal and ventral when standing. The bladder neck moved cephalad and ventral when the patient was standing, and cephalad and dorsal with the patient supine and holding the bladder neck.Conclusions
The anatomical locations and dynamic displacements of the bladder neck at rest, and during maximal straining and holding were significantly different in the supine and standing positions. While evaluating the dynamic motion of the bladder neck to determine bladder neck mobility, patient position must be considered and specified in accordance with diagnostic standards.