LONG-TERM RESULTS FOLLOWING ADJUVANT CHEMOTHERAPY IN PATIENTS WITH CLINICAL STAGE I TESTICULAR NONSEMINOMATOUS MALIGNANT GERM CELL TUMORS WITH HIGH RISK FACTORS

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Abstract

Purpose

We determine the efficacy and safety of 2 cycles of adjuvant chemotherapy after orchiectomy in patients with high risk clinical stage I nonseminomatous germ cell tumor of the testis as an alternative to retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy or watchful waiting.

Materials and Methods

A total of 60 consecutive patients with clinical stage I nonseminomatous germ cell tumor of the testis and 1 or more risk factors were entered into this prospective study. Criteria for high risk were embryonal cell carcinoma, tumor invasion of blood or lymph vessels, or tumor stage pT2 or greater. Chemotherapy consisted of 2 cycles of cisplatin, vinblastine and bleomycin or bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin.

Results

Of the 60 patients 1 refused chemotherapy and 1 was lost to followup 1.5 years after treatment. The remaining 58 patients have been followed for a median of 93 months (range 32 to 146). World Health Organization grade 4 toxicity was observed in 9 of the 116 chemotherapy cycles, and consisted mainly of transient neutropenia and thrombocytopenia. No significant long-term sequelae were detected. There was 1 relapse after 22 months in a patient with adult teratoma in the ipsilateral region of the iliac vessels who remained disease-free 85 months after surgical excision of the lesion. Another patient had a seminoma in the contralateral testicle with interaortocaval lymph node metastases 7.5 years after adjuvant chemotherapy. The remaining 56 men are without relapse or contralateral tumor to date.

Conclusions

We recommend adjuvant chemotherapy as an efficient therapeutic alternative to retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy for high risk nonseminomatous germ cell tumor of the testis.

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