Enucleation for Prepubertal Leydig Cell Tumor

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Leydig cell tumors in children are rare, comprising only 4% to 9% of all primary testis tumors in prepubertal males. Almost all of these boys present with isosexual precocious pseudopuberty associated with increased testosterone, low gonadotropin levels and a testis mass. We present our experience with testis sparing enucleation of Leydig cell tumor in prepubertal boys.

Materials and Methods

Two patients presented with isosexual precocious puberty at ages 6 and 9 years. Each patient had a well circumscribed, painless testicular mass, increased serum testosterone (101 and 444 ng/dl [normal 0 to 25]), normal gonadotropins and negative α-fetoprotein levels. Both patients underwent successful enucleation of the testis mass following proper testis oncological surgical principles.


Both patients had normalization of the serum testosterone following enucleation of the Leydig cell tumor. At 9 and 44 months of followup they have maintained normal ipsilateral testicular volume compared to the contralateral gonad, and 1 patient entered puberty spontaneously at 1 year postoperatively. Neither patient suffered any morbidity, and both have presumably benefited from preservation of the involved gonad with preserved testicular volume.


Prepubertal boys with isosexual precocious pseudopuberty, an isolated testis mass, increased testosterone and low or normal gonadotropin levels can reliably be diagnosed with Leydig cell tumors. Based on the ability to establish the diagnosis preoperatively and the universal benign behavior of unilateral, prepubertal Leydig cell tumor, we believe these patients are best treated with testis sparing enucleation of the tumor. In view of the high likelihood that this tumor in prepubertal boys is benign, a transscrotal surgical approach should be considered.

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