A Review of Failures of Endoscopic Treatment of Vesicoureteral Reflux With Dextranomer Microspheres

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We evaluated the appearance of the mound of failed endoscopic dextranomer microsphere injections at the time of reinjection or open ureteral reimplantation.

Materials and Methods

We performed a multi-institutional study of 80 patients (97 ureters) who were diagnosed with vesicoureteral reflux and had failed endoscopic treatment with dextranomer microspheres. Observations of injected mound characteristics were made during the time of reinjection or at open ureteral reimplantation. Correlations were made with the pre-injection grade of reflux, volume of initial injection, number of punctures used for the initial injection and presence of symptoms of dysfunctional voiding.


Examination of the failed injection sites before subsequent injections or open surgery revealed mound abnormalities in all but 13 of the 97 ureters. Of the cases 49% demonstrated a shifted mound, 22% an absent mound and 10% a loss of volume in the mound. Of the 13 patients with normal appearing mounds 7 had improved reflux grade, 3 had worsened grade and 3 had no change. Patients with dysfunctional voiding symptoms had a second injection failure rate of 44%, compared to a 13% rate in those without symptoms of voiding dysfunction.


Most failures of endoscopic correction are associated with mound shifting. The presence of a perfect mound does not predict success. Dysfunctional voiding predicts a lower success rate after a second injection.

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