Long-Term Outcomes of Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy Compared to Shock Wave Lithotripsy and Conservative Management

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Abstract

Purpose:

Percutaneous nephrolithotomy is successful at achieving stone-free status but long-term safety data are lacking. We report our long-term experience with percutaneous nephrolithotomy and compare these results with other treatment modalities.

Materials and Methods:

We identified 87 patients treated with percutaneous nephrolithotomy from 1983 to 1984 who continue to receive care at our institution. Retrospective chart review was performed. Long-term results were compared to those of a group of 288 patients with stones treated nonsurgically (controls) and a group of 288 patients treated with shock wave lithotripsy followed for 19 years.

Results:

Average followup was 19.2 years (range 12.7 to 23.0). After percutaneous nephrolithotomy new onset renal insufficiency was noted in 9 patients (10.6%), hypertension in 29 (34.1%), diabetes mellitus in 20 (23.5%) and ureteropelvic junction obstruction in 3 (3.5%). Stone recurrence occurred in 32 patients (36.8%). Recurrent stone events were associated with residual fragments after percutaneous nephrolithotomy (p = 0.049). Compared to shock wave lithotripsy there were no significant differences in the development of renal insufficiency, hypertension or diabetes mellitus. Stone recurrence was more common following shock wave lithotripsy (53.5%) compared to percutaneous nephrolithotomy (p = 0.033). Compared to controls there were no significant differences in the development of renal insufficiency or hypertension. On univariate analysis percutaneous nephrolithotomy was associated with the development of diabetes mellitus (p <0.001) but this association did not persist in multivariate analysis.

Conclusions:

At 19 years of followup stone recurrences were less frequent following percutaneous nephrolithotomy compared to shock wave lithotripsy. Recurrent stone events were associated with residual fragments after percutaneous nephrolithotomy. Percutaneous nephrolithotomy was not associated with the development of adverse medical conditions compared to shock wave lithotripsy or conservatively managed stone cases.

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