The Roles of Multiparametric Magnetic Resonance Imaging, PCA3 and Prostate Health Index—Which is the Best Predictor of Prostate Cancer after a Negative Biopsy?

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Abstract

Purpose:

In patients with a negative prostate biopsy and persistent suspicion of prostate cancer, additional analyses such as the PCA3 score, PHI and multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging have been proposed to reduce the number of unnecessary repeat biopsies. In this study we evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of PCA3, PHI, multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging and various combinations of these tests in the repeat biopsy setting.

Materials and Methods:

A total of 170 patients with an initial negative prostate biopsy and persistent suspicion of prostate cancer were enrolled in this prospective study. The patients underwent measurements of the total prostate specific antigen and free prostate specific antigen rate, along with PHI, PCA3 tests and multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging before standard repeat biopsy that was performed by urologists blinded to the multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging results. Multivariate logistic regression models with various combinations of PCA3, PHI and multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging were used to identify the predictors of prostate cancer with repeat biopsy, and the performance of these models was compared using ROC curves, AUC analysis and decision curve analysis.

Results:

In the ROC analysis the most significant contribution was provided by multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (AUC 0.936), which was greater than the contribution of the PHI+PCA3 model (p <0.001). In the multivariate logistic regression analysis only multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging was a significant independent predictor of prostate cancer diagnosis with repeat biopsy (p <0.001). The results of the decision curve analysis confirmed that the most significant improvement in the net benefit was provided by multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging.

Conclusions:

Multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging provides high diagnostic accuracy in identifying patients with prostate cancer in the repeat biopsy setting compared with PCA3 and PHI.

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