Development of Hypertension is Less Frequent after Bilateral Nephron Sparing Surgery for Bilateral Wilms Tumor in a Long-Term Survey

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Abstract

Purpose:

The option of nephron sparing surgery for unilateral Wilms tumor has been debated in the recent literature. This procedure is being used increasingly to preserve kidney tissue and function. However, nephron sparing surgery is feasible only for selected cases, and a higher local relapse rate has been observed. Moreover, a significant reduction of nephrons is associated with development of renal hypertension and progressive renal failure. We analyzed outcomes after bilateral partial nephrectomy and unilateral partial plus contralateral total nephrectomy in patients with bilateral Wilms tumor.

Materials and Methods:

We analyzed data from the Society of Pediatric Oncology and Hematology database on 22 patients with bilateral Wilms tumor. Kidney size was measured using volumetric analysis of magnetic resonance imaging. Patients were matched with children who had undergone magnetic resonance imaging of the abdomen for other malignancies.

Results:

Mean kidney volumes after unilateral partial plus total contralateral nephrectomy (66.9 cm3) were significantly greater than the reference kidneys (p = 0.028), whereas controls were equal to the bilateral partial nephrectomy group (49.7 cm3, p = 0.959). Total kidney volume was significantly larger after bilateral partial nephrectomy (102.1 cm3) vs unilateral partial plus total contralateral nephrectomy (66.9 cm3, p = 0.0338). Eight patients (66.7%) had renal hypertension after unilateral partial plus total contralateral nephrectomy but only 2 (20%) after bilateral partial nephrectomy (p = 0.043). Overall survival and relapse rates were equal between the groups and did not correlate with unfavorable histology.

Conclusions:

Our findings suggest that patients with bilateral Wilms tumor benefit from bilateral nephron sparing surgery. Hypertension is less common after bilateral partial nephrectomy, and rates of local relapse or disease associated death are distributed equally between the groups.

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