Pazopanib as Third Line Therapy for Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma: Clinical Efficacy and Temporal Analysis of Cytokine Profile

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Abstract

Purpose:

Pazopanib has been assessed primarily in cytokine refractory or treatment naïve patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma. Outcomes have been associated with a specific immunological profile. However, pazopanib activity in the third line setting and temporal changes in the immunological profile during therapy are poorly understood.

Materials and Methods:

Study eligibility was limited to patients with 2 prior lines of therapy, including at least 1 vascular endothelial growth factor directed therapy, as well as ECOG performance status 0 to 2 and clear cell histology. Patients received pazopanib 800 mg daily. A Simon minmax 2-stage design was used with 80% power to determine an encouraging 23% overall response rate (10% type I error). Immunological profiles were assessed monthly on a Luminex® platform using the Human Cytokine 30-Plex Cytokine Immunoassay (Invitrogen™).

Results:

A total of 28 patients with a median age of 63 years (range 45 to 86) were enrolled in study. Of the patients 12 (43%) had a confirmed complete (1) or partial (11) response. In the cohort median progression-free survival was 16.5 months (95% CI 14.7-not reached). The most common grade 3/4 toxicities were hypertension (46% of cases) and proteinuria (14%). At 6 and 12 months responders had lower levels of HGF, VEGF, IL-6 and 8, and soluble IL-2R (each p <0.05). Nonresponders also showed increased numbers of myeloid-derived suppressor cells at each interval. Phenotypic and functional studies confirmed that the myeloid-derived suppressor cells were granulocytic.

Conclusions:

Progression-free survival and the overall response rate associated with third line pazopanib were encouraging. Immunological profile differences between responders and nonresponders suggest that the mechanism of pazopanib resistance is at least partly related to the generation of systemic tumor immune tolerance.

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