The Risk of Distant Metastases and Cancer Specific Survival in Men with Serum Prostate Specific Antigen Values above 100 ng/ml

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Abstract

Purpose:

Current EAU (European Association of Urology) guidelines state that prostate specific antigen 100 ng/ml or greater at diagnosis indicates metastatic disease. We examined the association of prostate specific antigen 100 ng/ml or greater at diagnosis with distant metastasis and prostate cancer specific survival.

Material and Methods:

A total of 15,635 men with prostate cancer diagnosed between 1998 and 2009 who were identified in PCBaSe (Prostate Cancer Data Base Sweden 2.0) were included in a population based registry study. Prostate cancer specific survival was compared among 3 groups, including 1,879 men with prostate specific antigen 100 ng/ml or greater and negative imaging (M0), 5,642 with distant metastases on imaging (M1) and prostate specific antigen 100 ng/ml or greater, and 3,828 with M1 and prostate specific antigen less than 100 ng/ml. A fourth group consisted of 4,286 men with prostate specific antigen 100 ng/ml or greater who had not undergone imaging (Mx). The latter men were not included in the assessment of survival.

Results:

Of 7,521 men with prostate specific antigen 100 ng/ml or greater who underwent imaging for staging 75% were classified with M1 disease. Only 59% of 3,527 men with prostate specific antigen 100 to 300 mg/ml had distant metastases on imaging. Five-year prostate cancer specific survival was 72% (95% CI 70–74) in men with prostate specific antigen 100 ng/ml or greater and M0, 24% (95% CI 23–25) in men with prostate specific antigen 100 ng/ml or greater and M1, and 39% (95% CI 37–40) in men with prostate specific antigen less than 100 ng/ml and M1.

Conclusions:

A fourth of men with prostate specific antigen 100 ng/ml or greater did not have distant metastases. They had twofold to threefold higher 5-year survival than men with distant metastases on imaging. Our findings strongly suggest that using prostate specific antigen 100 ng/ml or greater as an indicator of metastatic disease should be reconsidered.

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