We sought to describe and evaluate the complications related to percutaneous nephrolithotomy and identify risk factors of morbidity according to the modified Clavien scoring system. We also sought to specify which perioperative factors are associated with minor and major complications.Materials and Methods:
We retrospectively analyzed data on patients who underwent percutaneous nephrolithotomy from 1990 to 2013. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze patient characteristics, medical comorbidities and perioperative features. Complications were categorized according to the Clavien score for percutaneous nephrolithotomy. The Mann-Whitney and Fisher exact tests were used as appropriate. Logistic regression analysis was performed to look for prognostic factors associated with major complications.Results:
A total of 2,318 surgeries were evaluated. Mean age of the population was 53.7 years. The stone-free rate at hospital discharge was 81.6%. The overall complication rate was 18.3%. Two deaths occurred. Patients with any postoperative complications were older, had more comorbidities, were more likely to have staghorn calculi and had longer operative time and hospital stay on univariate analysis (p <0.05). Age 55 years or older and upper pole access were independent predictors of major complications on multivariate analysis. Other factors such as a history of urinary tract infections, body mass index, stone composition, previous percutaneous nephrolithotomy and multiple tracts were not associated with a major complication.Conclusions:
At our center percutaneous nephrolithotomy is an excellent option for complex kidney stone management with a low overall complication rate. Older patient age and upper pole access are significantly associated with an increased risk of a major complication.