We compared the oncologic outcomes of radical nephroureterectomy, distal ureterectomy and endoscopic surgery for elective treatment of clinically organ confined upper tract urothelial carcinoma of the distal ureter.Materials and Methods:
From a multi-institutional collaborative database we identified 304 patients with unifocal, clinically organ confined urothelial carcinoma of the distal ureter and bilateral functional kidneys. Rates of overall, cancer specific, local recurrence-free and intravesical recurrence-free survival according to surgery type were compared using Kaplan-Meier statistics. Univariable and multivariable Cox regression analyses were performed to assess the adjusted outcomes of radical nephroureterectomy, distal ureterectomy and endoscopic surgery.Results:
Overall 128 (42.1%), 134 (44.1%) and 42 patients (13.8%) were treated with radical nephroureterectomy, distal ureterectomy and endoscopic surgery, respectively. Although rates of overall, cancer specific and intravesical recurrence-free survival were equivalent among the 3 surgical procedures, 5-year local recurrence-free survival was lower for endoscopic surgery (35.7%) than for nephroureterectomy (95.0%, p <0.001) or ureterectomy (85.5%, p = 0.01) with no significant difference between nephroureterectomy and distal ureterectomy. On multivariable analyses only endoscopic surgery was an independent predictor of decreased local recurrence-free survival compared to nephroureterectomy (HR 1.27, p = 0.001) or distal ureterectomy (HR 1.14, p = 0.01). Distal ureterectomy and endoscopic surgery did not significantly correlate to cancer specific or intravesical recurrence-free survival. However, when adjustment was made for ASA® (American Society of Anesthesiologists®) score, distal ureterectomy (HR 0.80, p = 0.01) and endoscopic surgery (HR 0.84, p = 0.02) were independent predictors of increased overall survival, although no significant difference was found between them.Conclusions:
Because of better oncologic outcomes, distal ureterectomy could be considered the elective first line treatment of clinically organ confined urothelial carcinoma of the distal ureter.