In the current study we examined dynamic changes in neural activity of the anterior cingulate cortex and the midbrain periaqueductal gray during the micturition reflex in a Parkinson's disease model as well as the effects of direct stimulation of the anterior cingulate cortex on the micturition reflex.Materials and Methods:
Electrodes were inserted in the anterior cingulate cortex or the periaqueductal gray. The effects of intravenous administration of the adenosine A2A receptor antagonist ZM24138 on pelvic nerve evoked field potentials were examined. The effect of electrical stimulation of the anterior cingulate cortex was also examined.Results:
Rats with Parkinson's disease showed bladder overactivity as evidenced by a significant decrease in the intercontraction interval compared with sham operated rats. Intravenous administration of ZM24138 increased the intercontraction interval in both groups with the inhibitory effects greater in rats with Parkinson's disease. It dose dependently increased the amplitude of evoked potentials in the anterior cingulate cortex of rats with Parkinson's disease but not in sham operated rats. Intravenous administration of ZM24138 decreased evoked potential amplitude in the periaqueductal gray of both groups with the inhibitory effects greater in Parkinson's disease vs sham operated rats. Electrical stimulation of the anterior cingulate cortex significantly increased the intercontraction interval.Conclusions:
These results suggest that anterior cingulate cortex neurons have an inhibitory role in bladder control. Neural activity in the anterior cingulate cortex was significantly increased along with suppression of bladder overactivity after ZM241385 administration in the Parkinson's disease model and the stimulation of the anterior cingulate cortex inhibited the micturition reflex. Understanding the roles of the anterior cingulate cortex in the modulation of micturition could provide further insights into the pathophysiology of overactive bladder.