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Sex cord stromal tumors of the testis comprise less than 5% of testicular neoplasms. Consequently, data regarding patterns of care and survival are sparse. Using a large national database, we sought to provide a more definitive analysis of outcomes and management of these malignancies.Data were obtained from the National Cancer Data Base. Patients diagnosed from 1998 to 2011 with 2 of the most frequent sex cord stromal tumors of the testis, including Leydig and Sertoli cell tumors, were selected for study. Overall survival estimates were assessed by the Kaplan-Meier method.Of the 79,120 cases of testicular cancer between 1998 and 2011, 315 (0.39%) were primary malignant Leydig or Sertoli cell tumors. Median patient age was 43 years for both tumors. Of the 315 patients 250 (79%) had malignant Leydig cell tumors and 65 (21%) had malignant Sertoli cell tumors, of which 94% and 78%, respectively, were stage I. Overall survival at 1 and 5 years for stage I Leydig cell tumors was 98% (95% CI 96–100) and 91% (95% CI 85–96), and for stage I Sertoli cell tumors overall survival was 93% (95% CI 83–100) and 77% (95% CI 62–95), respectively (p = 0.015). Of patients with stage I Leydig and Sertoli cell tumors 94% and 84%, respectively, received no further treatment following orchiectomy.Five-year survival estimates of stage I Leydig and Sertoli cell tumors are significantly lower compared to those of stage I germ cell tumors with Sertoli cell tumors significantly worse than Leydig cell tumors. These differences in the survival of sex cord stromal tumors indicate the importance of large databases to evaluate the efficacy of treatment for rare neoplasms.