Outcomes of Surgical Management in Patients with Stress Urinary Incontinence and/or Neovesicovaginal Fistula after Orthotopic Neobladder Diversion

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Purpose:To our knowledge there are no guidelines for the evaluation and management of incontinence in women with an orthotopic neobladder. We propose a treatment algorithm based on our experience with treating this patient population.Materials and Methods:We identified women in whom orthotopic neobladder diversion and surgery for incontinence were performed from January 1, 1995 to January 1, 2014. Charts were reviewed for management, outcomes and complications within 30 days of surgery.Results:At this institution 12 women with orthotopic neobladder diversion were treated with surgery for incontinence between 1995 and 2014. Six women (50%) had an undiagnosed neovesicovaginal fistula, of whom 3 (50%) underwent successful fistula repair. A total of 12 bulking agent injections were performed in 6 women (50%). The outcomes were continued dryness after 1 injection (8%), transient improvement after 9 (75%), immediate failure after 1 (8%) and secondary fistula development after 1 (8%). Four transobturator slings and 4 pubovaginal slings were placed in a total of 6 patients (50%), of whom 1 (17%) was dry and 1 (17%) was improved. At a median followup of 22.9 months (IQR 11.1–46.4) 6 women (50%) were dry or improved and 6 (50%) had no improvement in leakage. Of the 6 (50%) women who were dry or improved 2 (17%) achieved planned intermittent catheterization after surgery and 2 (17%) underwent ileal conduit conversion.Conclusions:Bulking agents have low long-term efficacy and carry the risk of fistula formation. The efficacy of tension-free sling placement is low and continence requires an obstructing sling. Counseling should include acceptance of multiple procedures, which may be necessary to achieve continence, and consideration of conduit diversion.

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