Clinicopathological Features and Prognostic Value of Incidental Prostatic Adenocarcinoma in Radical Cystoprostatectomy Specimens: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of 13,140 Patients

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Abstract

Purpose:

There is controversy in the literature about the oncologic significance of incidental prostate cancer detected at radical cystoprostatectomy for bladder cancer.

Materials and Methods:

An online search was done for studies reporting incidental prostate cancer in cystoprostatectomy specimens. After following the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines we identified a total of 34 reports containing 13,140 patients who underwent radical cystoprostatectomy for bladder cancer with no previous history of prostate cancer. A cumulative analysis was performed on the available data regarding prevalence, clinicopathological features and oncologic outcomes. RevMan, version 5.3 was used for data meta-analysis.

Results:

Of the 13,140 patients incidental prostate cancer was detected in 3,335 (24.4%). Incidental prostate cancer was significantly associated with greater age (Z = 3.81, p = 0.0001, d = 0.27, 95% CI −0.14–0.68), lymphovascular invasion of bladder cancer (Z = 2.07, p = 0.04, r = 0.14, 95% CI 0.09–0.18) and lower 5-year overall survival (Z = 2.2, p = 0.03). Among patients with clinically significant and insignificant prostate cancer those with clinically significant prostate cancer significantly more frequently showed a positive finding on digital rectal examination (Z = 3.12, p = 0.002, r = 0.10, 95% CI 0–0.19) and lower 5-year overall survival (Z = 2.49, p = 0.01) whereas no effect of age was observed (p = 0.15). Of 1,320 patients monitored for biochemical recurrence prostate specific antigen recurrence, defined as prostate specific antigen greater than 0.02 ng/ml, developed in 25 (1.9%) at between 3 and 102 months.

Conclusions:

This meta-analysis suggests that incidental prostate cancer detected during histopathological examination of radical cystoprostatectomy specimens might be linked with adverse characteristics and outcomes in patients with invasive bladder cancer.

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