Do Renin-Angiotensin Blockers Affect Renal Function and Cardiac Outcomes in Patients Undergoing Partial Nephrectomy?

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Abstract

Purpose:

Currently no data exist to guide renal surgeons on the perioperative use of renin-angiotensin blockers despite potential cardiorenal benefits. We aimed to assess the impact of resuming renin-angiotensin blockers on postoperative renal function and adverse cardiac events following partial nephrectomy.

Materials and Methods:

This is an observational analysis of patients who underwent robot-assisted laparoscopic partial nephrectomy from 2006 to 2014 at a single institution. The Wilcoxon rank sum and chi-square tests, and logistic regression were used to assess the risk of adverse renal and cardiac events stratified by history and pattern of renin-angiotensin blockade perioperatively.

Results:

We identified 900 patients with a median followup of 16.3 months (IQR 1.4–39.1). There were no significant differences in severe renal dysfunction at last followup on univariate analysis or adverse cardiac events at 30 days on multivariate analysis in patients stratified by a history of renin-angiotensin blockade. Of the 338 patients 137 (41.9%) resumed renin-angiotensin blockade immediately after surgery, which did not result in any significant difference in the postoperative glomerular filtration rate (p >0.05). Resuming renin-angiotensin blockade at discharge home was associated with a decreased risk of heart failure within 30 days of surgery (0.3% vs 11.8% of cases) and stage IV/V chronic kidney disease at last followup (2.6% vs 25.5%, each p <0.001).

Conclusions:

Renin-angiotensin blockers appear safe to continue immediately after renal surgery. Discharge home with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers was associated with a decreased risk of heart failure and severe renal dysfunction. However, this risk may be overstated as a result of the small number of patients discharged without resuming the home medication.

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