Sensitive detection of cancer foci in men experiencing biochemical recurrence following initial treatment of prostate cancer is of great clinical significance with a possible impact on subsequent treatment choice. We describe a multisite experience of the efficacy and safety of the positron emission tomography/computerized tomography agent fluciclovine (18F) after biochemical recurrence.Materials and Methods:
A total of 596 patients underwent fluciclovine (18F) positron emission tomography/computerized tomography at 4 clinical sites. Detection rate determinations were stratified by the baseline prostate specific antigen value. Diagnostic performance was assessed against a histological reference standard in 143 scans.Results:
The subject level fluciclovine (18F) positron emission tomography/computer tomography detection rate was 67.7% (403 of 595 scans). Positive findings were detected in the prostate/bed and pelvic lymph node regions in 38.7% (232 of 599) and 32.6% of scans (194 of 596), respectively. Metastatic involvement outside the pelvis was detected in 26.2% of scans (155 of 591). The subject level detection rate in patients in the lowest quartile for baseline prostate specific antigen (0.79 ng/ml or less) was 41.4% (53 of 128). Of these patients 13 had involvement in the prostate/bed only, 16 had pelvic lymph node involvement without distant disease and 24 had distant metastases. The positive predictive value of fluciclovine (18F) positron emission tomography/computerized tomography scanning for all sampled lesions was 62.2%, and it was 92.3% and 71.8% for extraprostatic and prostate/bed involvement, respectively. Fluciclovine (18F) was well tolerated and the safety profile was not altered following repeat administration.Conclusions:
Fluciclovine (18F) is well tolerated and able to detect local and distant prostate cancer recurrence across a wide range of prostate specific antigen values.