Multisite Experience of the Safety, Detection Rate and Diagnostic Performance of Fluciclovine (18F) Positron Emission Tomography/Computerized Tomography Imaging in the Staging of Biochemically Recurrent Prostate Cancer

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Sensitive detection of cancer foci in men experiencing biochemical recurrence following initial treatment of prostate cancer is of great clinical significance with a possible impact on subsequent treatment choice. We describe a multisite experience of the efficacy and safety of the positron emission tomography/computerized tomography agent fluciclovine (18F) after biochemical recurrence.

Materials and Methods:

A total of 596 patients underwent fluciclovine (18F) positron emission tomography/computerized tomography at 4 clinical sites. Detection rate determinations were stratified by the baseline prostate specific antigen value. Diagnostic performance was assessed against a histological reference standard in 143 scans.


The subject level fluciclovine (18F) positron emission tomography/computer tomography detection rate was 67.7% (403 of 595 scans). Positive findings were detected in the prostate/bed and pelvic lymph node regions in 38.7% (232 of 599) and 32.6% of scans (194 of 596), respectively. Metastatic involvement outside the pelvis was detected in 26.2% of scans (155 of 591). The subject level detection rate in patients in the lowest quartile for baseline prostate specific antigen (0.79 ng/ml or less) was 41.4% (53 of 128). Of these patients 13 had involvement in the prostate/bed only, 16 had pelvic lymph node involvement without distant disease and 24 had distant metastases. The positive predictive value of fluciclovine (18F) positron emission tomography/computerized tomography scanning for all sampled lesions was 62.2%, and it was 92.3% and 71.8% for extraprostatic and prostate/bed involvement, respectively. Fluciclovine (18F) was well tolerated and the safety profile was not altered following repeat administration.


Fluciclovine (18F) is well tolerated and able to detect local and distant prostate cancer recurrence across a wide range of prostate specific antigen values.

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