Current clinicopathological parameters are insufficient to predict the likelihood of biochemical recurrence in patients with prostate cancer after radical prostatectomy. Such information may help identify patients who would likely benefit from adjuvant radiotherapy rather than active surveillance. A multiplex proteomic assay, previously tested on biopsies and found to be predictive of favorable or unfavorable pathology at radical prostatectomy, was assessed for its predictive value to identify patients at higher risk for biochemical relapse.Materials and Methods:
Proteomic assays from core needle biopsies of 288 men who subsequently underwent radical prostatectomy at CHUM (Centre hospitalier de l'Université de Montréal) were evaluated for the prediction of subsequent biochemical recurrence.Results:
Of the 288 men, biochemical relapse was observed in 47 (16.3%) and metastases were found in 5 (1.7%). Median followup was 68.5 months. The proteomic assay clearly separated patients into 3 categories, including those at low, intermediate and high risk for biochemical relapse (p = 0.0007). Assay scores predicted biochemical relapse on univariate analysis (HR 1.724, p = 0.0002 per 20% change in score), significantly better than other preoperative prognostic parameters. Additionally, the assay score had a significantly higher p value when combined with clinical National Comprehensive Cancer Network® stage compared to stage alone (HR 1.579, p = 0.0017 per 20% change in score).Conclusions:
A protein based assay score derived from diagnostic needle biopsy has strong predictive ability for biochemical relapse after surgery. These results suggest that this assay score can be used at the diagnostic stage to identify patients in whom prostate cancer is potentially more biologically aggressive and active treatment should be considered.