We sought to investigate the prevalence and variables associated with early oncologic failure.Materials and Methods:
We retrospectively reviewed the IRCC (International Radical Cystectomy Consortium) database of patients who underwent robot-assisted radical cystectomy since 2003. The final cohort comprised a total of 1,894 patients from 23 institutions in 11 countries. Early oncologic failure was defined as any disease relapse within 3 months of robot-assisted radical cystectomy. All institutions were surveyed for the pneumoperitoneum pressure used, breach of oncologic surgical principles, and techniques of specimen and lymph node removal. A multivariate model was fit to evaluate predictors of early oncologic failure. The Kaplan-Meier method was applied to depict disease specific and overall survival, and Cox proportional regression analysis was used to evaluate predictors of disease specific and overall survival.Results:
A total of 305 patients (22%) experienced disease relapse, which was distant in 220 (16%), local recurrence in 154 (11%), peritoneal carcinomatosis in 17 (1%) and port site recurrence in 5 (0.4%). Early oncologic failure developed in 71 patients (5%) at a total of 10 institutions. The incidence of early oncologic failure decreased from 10% in 2006 to 6% in 2015. On multivariate analysis the presence of any complication (OR 2.87, 95% CI 1.38–5.96, p = 0.004), pT3 or greater disease (OR 3.73, 95% CI 2.00–6.97, p <0.001) and nodal involvement (OR 2.14, 95% CI 1.21–3.80, p = 0.008) was a significant predictor of early oncologic failure. Patients with early oncologic failure demonstrated worse disease specific and overall survival (23% and 13%, respectively) at 1 and 3 years compared to patients who experienced later or no recurrences (log rank p <0.001).Conclusions:
The incidence of early oncologic failure following robot-assisted radical cystectomy has decreased with time. Disease related rather than technical related factors have a major role in early oncologic failure after robot-assisted radical cystectomy.