Urolithiasis can impair kidney function. This literature review focuses on the risk of kidney impairment in stone formers, the specific conditions associated with this risk and the impact of urological surgery.Materials and Methods:
The PubMed® and Embase® databases were searched for publications on urolithiasis, its treatment, and the risk of chronic kidney disease, end stage renal disease and nephrectomy in stone formers.Results:
In general, renal stone formers have twice the risk of chronic kidney disease or end stage renal disease, and for female and overweight stone formers the risk is even higher. Patients with frequent urinary tract infections, struvite stones, urinary malformations and diversions, malabsorptive bowel conditions and some monogenic disorders are at high risk for chronic kidney disease/end stage renal disease. Shock wave lithotripsy or minimally invasive urological interventions for stones do not adversely affect renal function. Declines in renal function generally occur in patients with preexisting chronic kidney disease or a large stone burden requiring repeated and/or complex surgery.Conclusions:
Although the effect size is modest, urolithiasis may cause chronic kidney disease and, thus, it is mandatory to assess patients with renal stones for the risk of chronic kidney disease/end stage renal disease. We suggest that all guidelines dealing with renal stone disease should include assessment of this risk.