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We sought to identify clinical and demographic characteristics associated with treatment response and satisfaction in women undergoing onabotulinumtoxinA and sacral neuromodulation therapies.We analyzed data from the ROSETTA (Refractory Overactive Bladder: Sacral NEuromodulation versus BoTulinum Toxin Assessment) trial. Baseline participant characteristics and clinical variables were associated with 2 definitions of treatment response, including 1) a reduction in mean daily urgency incontinence episodes during 6 months and 2) a 50% or greater decrease in urgency incontinence episodes across 6 months. The OAB-S (Overactive Bladder-Satisfaction) questionnaire was used to assess satisfaction.A greater reduction in mean daily urgency incontinence episodes was associated with higher HUI-3 (Health Utility Index-3) scores in the onabotulinumtoxinA group and higher baseline incontinence episodes (each p <0.001) in the 2 groups. Increased age was associated with a lesser decrease in incontinence episodes in the 2 groups (p <0.001). Increasing body mass index (adjusted OR 0.82/5 points, 95% CI 0.70–0.96) was associated with reduced achievement of a 50% or greater decrease in incontinence episodes after each treatment. Greater age (adjusted OR 0.44/10 years, 95% CI 0.30–0.65) and a higher functional comorbidity index (adjusted OR 0.84/1 point, 95% CI 0.71–0.99) were associated with reduced achievement of a 50% or greater decrease in urgency incontinence episodes in the onabotulinumtoxinA group only (p <0.001 and 0.041, respectively). In the onabotulinumtoxinA group increased satisfaction was noted with higher HUI-3 score (p = 0.002) but there was less satisfaction with higher age (p = 0.001).Older women with multiple comorbidities, and decreased functional and health related quality of life had decreased treatment response and satisfaction with onabotulinumtoxinA compared to sacral neuromodulation for refractory urgency incontinence.