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Ureterocalicostomy is a well established treatment option in patients who have recurrent ureteropelvic junction obstruction with postoperative fibrosis and a relatively inaccessible renal pelvis. We evaluated the long-term outcome of ureterocalicostomy and factors predicting its failure.We retrospectively analyzed data on 72 patients who underwent open or laparoscopic ureterocalicostomy from 2000 to 2014. Variables that may affect the outcomes of ureterocalicostomy were assessed with regard to primary pathology findings, patient age, serum creatinine, preoperative renal size (less than and greater than 15 cm), renal cortical thickness (less than and greater than 5 mm), hydronephrosis grade and preoperative renal function (glomerular filtration rate less than and greater than 20 ml/minute/1.73 m2). The surgery outcome was calculated in terms of success or failure. Factors predicting failure were evaluated by univariate and multivariate analysis. Failure was defined as an additional procedure required postoperatively due to persistent symptoms and/or followup renal scan showing persistent significant obstruction with deterioration of renal function on at least 2 occasions 3 months apart. Patients with less than 2-year followup were excluded from study.We analyzed data on 72 patients who underwent ureterocalicostomy during this period. Mean ± SD age of the study group was 28.9 ± 12.3 years and mean baseline serum creatinine was 1.1 ± 0.3 mg/dl. The mean glomerular filtration rate was 27.8 ± 11.6 ml/minute/1.73 m2 and mean cortical thickness of the operated kidney was 7 ± 3.86 mm. Common indications for ureterocalicostomy were failed previous pyeloplasty and/or endopyelotomy in 35 patients (48.6%) and secondary ureteropelvic junction obstruction after pyelolithotomy or percutaneous nephrolithotomy in 24 (33.3%). The most common complication was urinary tract infection, which was seen in 22 patients (30.6%). At a mean followup of 60.3 ± 13.6 months 50 patients (69.5%) had a successful outcome. Treatment failed in 22 patients (30.5%), including 6 who required nephrectomy, while 13 were treated with frequent changes of Double-J® stents or with balloon dilation. In 3 patients ureterocalicostomy was repeated. The rate of failed ureterocalicostomy was higher in patients with a low preoperative glomerular filtration rate (less than 20 ml/minute/1.73 m2), attenuated cortical thickness (less than 5 mm) and higher creatinine (greater than 1.7 mg/dl) on univariate analysis. However, on multivariate analysis poor cortical thickness and a low glomerular filtration rate were independent predictors of failure.Ureterocalicostomy is an acceptable salvage option with a satisfactory long-term outcome. Patients with a low preoperative glomerular filtration rate (less than 20 ml/minute/1.73 m2) and a thinned out cortex (less than 5 mm) showed a poor outcome after ureterocalicostomy.