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We investigated changes in the levels of adenosine triphosphate and nitric oxide in the urothelium of men with detrusor underactivity and benign prostatic hyperplasia.We prospectively enrolled in study 30 men who planned to undergo surgical treatment for benign prostatic hyperplasia. The 15 patients with a bladder contractility index less than 100 were assigned to the detrusor underactivity group while the 15 with a bladder contractility index more than 100 were assigned to the no detrusor underactivity group. Bladder mucosal specimens were collected at surgical prostate resection, and adenosine triphosphate and endothelial nitric oxide synthase were analyzed in these specimens. The levels of adenosine triphosphate and endothelial nitric oxide synthase were compared between the 2 groups. The correlation of urodynamic parameters with adenosine triphosphate and endothelial nitric oxide synthase was assessed in all patients.Mean ± SEM endothelial nitric oxide synthase did not significantly differ between the detrusor underactivity and no underactivity groups (3.393 ± 0.969 vs 1.941 ± 0.377 IU/ml, p = 0.247). However, the mean level of adenosine triphosphate in the detrusor underactivity group was significantly lower than in the no detrusor underactivity group (1.289 ± 0.320 vs 9.262 ± 3.285 pmol, p = 0.011). In addition, in all patients adenosine triphosphate positively correlated with the bladder contractility index (r = 0.478, p = 0.018) and with detrusor pressure on maximal flow (r = 0.411, p = 0.046).Adenosine triphosphate was significantly decreased in the urothelium in men with detrusor underactivity and benign prostatic hyperplasia, reflecting the change in detrusor function.