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We sought to determine the predictors of short-term and long-term renal function impairment after partial nephrectomy.Clinical data on 769 consecutive patients who underwent partial nephrectomy were prospectively recorded at a total of 19 urological Italian centers from 2009 to 2012 in the RECORd 1 (Italian Registry of Conservative Renal Surgery) Project. We extracted clinical data on 708 of these patients who were alive, free of recurrent disease and with a minimum 2-year functional followup.Of the patients 47.3% underwent open, 36.6% underwent laparoscopic and 16.1% underwent robot-assisted partial nephrectomy. The median baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate was 84.5 ml/minute/1.73 m2 (IQR 69.9–99.1). Immediate (day 3 postoperatively), early (month 1) and late (month 24) renal function impairment greater than 25% from baseline was identified in 25.3%, 21.6% and 14.8% of cases, respectively. Female gender and the baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate were independent predictors of immediate, early and late renal function impairment. Age at diagnosis was an independent predictor of immediate and late impairment. Uncontrolled diabetes was an independent predictor of late impairment only. Open and laparoscopic approaches, and pedicle clamping were independent predictors of immediate and early renal function impairment. Overall 58 of 529 patients (11%) experienced postoperative cardiovascular events. Body mass index and late renal function impairment were independent predictors of those events.Surgically modifiable factors were significantly associated with worse immediate and early functional outcomes after partial nephrectomy while clinically unmodifiable factors affected renal function during the entire followup. Late renal function impairment is an independent predictor of postoperative cardiovascular events.