Increasing Prevalence of Nephrolithiasis in Association with Increased Body Mass Index in Children: A Population Based Study

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Epidemiological studies demonstrate an association of increased body mass index and risk of kidney stone formation in adults. We conducted a population based pediatric study to examine the epidemiology of nephrolithiasis in Israeli children during a 30-year period, and to determine body mass index distribution during the same period.

Materials and Methods:

We accessed data from the compulsory medical evaluations of 17-year-old military service candidates in Israel before their enlistment during 1980 to 2013. Candidates for the army with a history of stone disease were compared to those without such a history.


Of 1,908,893 candidates 1,691 reported a history of nephrolithiasis, yielding an average prevalence rate of 88.6 per 100,000. During 1980 to 1995 the average reported prevalence of nephrolithiasis was 69 cases per 100,000. From 1995 onward the reported prevalence increased by an average of 6% yearly, reaching 120 per 100,000 during 2010 to 2012. This increased prevalence was observed for males and females but was more prominent among males. Mean ± SD body mass index of stone formers was higher than that of controls (22.7 ± 3.5 vs 22.1 ± 3.9 kg/m2, p <0.001). The trend of increasing body mass index among male candidates during 1995 to 2012 parallels the trend of increasing nephrolithiasis during these years. The odds ratio for nephrolithiasis in candidates with body mass index 30 or greater kg/m2 was 1.7 (range 1.4 to 2.1) compared to candidates with a body mass index of 18.5 to 24.9 kg/m2.


This large, population based study documents an increasing prevalence of nephrolithiasis in children. The possible association of this finding with the increase in body mass index during the same period warrants further investigation.

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