Symptomatic Venous Thromboembolism is Associated with Inferior Survival among Patients Undergoing Nephrectomy with Inferior Vena Cava Tumor Thrombectomy for Renal Cell Carcinoma


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Abstract

Purpose:We investigated the incidence and survival impact of symptomatic venous thromboembolism after nephrectomy with inferior vena cava tumor thrombectomy.Materials and Methods:We retrospectively reviewed the records of 183 patients who underwent nephrectomy with inferior vena cava tumor thrombectomy (level I-IV) for renal cell carcinoma between 2000 and 2010. Postoperative venous thromboembolism was defined as symptomatic bland thrombus or embolism confirmed on imaging. The cumulative incidence of venous thromboembolism was estimated by the Kaplan-Meier method. Associations of clinicopathological features with time to thromboembolism after surgery and all cause mortality were evaluated on multivariable analysis with Cox models.Results:Symptomatic venous thromboembolism developed in 55 patients a median of 23 days (IQR 5–142) postoperatively, including pulmonary thrombosis in 24, deep venous thrombosis in 17, bland inferior vena cava thrombosis in 13 and portal vein thrombosis in 1. The cumulative incidence of thromboembolism 30, 90 and 365 days following surgery was 17%, 22% and 27%, respectively. A history of smoking (HR 2.15, 95% CI 1.09–4.24, p = 0.028), ECOG (Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group) performance status 1 or greater (HR 2.15, 95% CI 1.17–3.93, p = 0.013), hypercoagulability disorder (HR 5.12, 95% CI 1.93–13.59, p = 0.001) and bulky lymphadenopathy at surgery (HR 4.84, 95% CI 1.87–12.51, p = 0.001) was significantly associated with an increased risk of venous thromboembolism on multivariable analysis. Postoperative venous thromboembolism was significantly associated with an increased risk of all cause mortality (HR 1.53, 95% CI 1.04–2.23, p = 0.029).Conclusions:Venous thromboembolism after nephrectomy and tumor thrombectomy is common within 90 days of surgery. Symptomatic venous thromboembolism in this population is independently associated with a greater risk of mortality.

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