Androgen deprivation therapy is associated with the development of diabetes and metabolic syndrome. To our knowledge its effect on the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, a condition which frequently co-occurs with metabolic syndrome and other subsequent liver conditions such as liver cirrhosis, hepatic necrosis or any liver disease, has not been investigated.Materials and Methods:
We identified 82,938 men 66 years old or older who were diagnosed with localized prostate cancer in the SEER (Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results)-Medicare database from 1992 to 2009. Men with preexisting nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, liver disease, diabetes or metabolic syndrome were excluded from study. Propensity score adjusted, competing risk regression models were created to compare the risk of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in men who were vs were not treated with androgen deprivation. We also explored the influence of cumulative exposure to androgen deprivation therapy, calculated as monthly equivalent doses of gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists/antagonists (fewer than 7, 7 to 11 or more than 11 doses).Results:
Overall 37.5% of men underwent androgen deprivation therapy. They were more likely to be diagnosed with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (HR 1.54, 95% CI 1.40–1.68), liver cirrhosis (HR 1.35, 95% CI 1.12–1.60), liver necrosis (HR 1.41, 95% CI 1.15–1.72) and any liver disease (HR 1.47, 95% CI 1.35–1.60). A dose-response relationship was observed between the number of androgen deprivation therapy doses, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and any liver disease.Conclusions:
Androgen deprivation therapy in men with prostate cancer is associated with the diagnosis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. The usual limitations of an observational study design apply, including possible inaccuracy in defining outcomes in a population based registry.