Endoscopic Injection of Dextranomer/Hyaluronic Acid as First Line Treatment in 851 Consecutive Children with High Grade Vesicoureteral Reflux: Efficacy and Long-Term Results

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Abstract

Purpose:

Endoscopic injection of dextranomer/hyaluronic acid is widely acknowledged as first line treatment of lower grade vesicoureteral reflux. We demonstrate its long-term efficacy and safety in eradicating high grade reflux.

Materials and Methods:

A total of 518 girls and 333 boys with a median age of 2.3 years (range 2 months to 13.7 years) underwent endoscopic correction of high grade vesicoureteral reflux using dextranomer/hyaluronic acid. Reflux was unilateral in 415 cases and bilateral in 436, comprising 1,287 refluxing units. Reflux was grade IV in 1,153 ureters (89.6%) and grade V in 134 (10.4%). 99mTechnetium-dimercaptosuccinic acid scintigraphy identified renal scarring in 317 patients (37.3%). Followup ultrasound and voiding cystourethrogram were performed 3 months after intervention and renal ultrasound yearly thereafter. Median followup was 8.5 years (range 6 months to 16 years).

Results:

Overall resolution rate after the first endoscopic injection was 69.5% (895 of 1,287 cases), with resolution in 70.4% of grade IV and 61.9% of grade V cases. Reflux resolved after a second injection in 259 cases (20.1%) and after a third injection in 133 (10.4%). Persistent reflux after initial treatment was significantly more common in patients younger than age 1 year and in individuals with renal scarring. No significant postoperative complications were observed and no patient required ureteral reimplantation. Following reflux resolution febrile urinary tract infection developed in 43 children (5.1%), including 24 (55.8%) during the first year, 15 (34.9%) during the second year and 4 (9.3%) during year 3 or later. Of these patients 6 had reflux recurrence and 8 had neocontralateral grade III reflux, which was successfully treated with a single endoscopic injection of dextranomer/hyaluronic acid.

Conclusions:

Endoscopic injection of dextranomer/hyaluronic acid is an efficient and safe long-term treatment for grade IV and V vesicoureteral reflux, and can easily be repeated in patients with treatment failure with a high subsequent resolution rate.

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