Inconsistency in the Definition of Urinary Tract Infection after Intravesical Botulinum Toxin A Injection: A Systematic Review

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To more accurately examine the rate of urinary tract infection following onabotulinumtoxinA injection of the bladder we systematically reviewed the literature for definitions of urinary tract infection in studies of onabotulinumtoxinA injections. We assessed the studies for consistency with guideline statements defining urinary tract infections.

Materials and Methods:

We systematically reviewed the literature by querying MEDLINE® and Embase®. We included original studies on adult patients with idiopathic overactive bladder and/or neurogenic detrusor overactivity who underwent cystoscopy with onabotulinumtoxinA injection and in whom urinary tract infection was a reported outcome.


We identified 299 publications, of which 50 met study inclusion criteria. In 27 studies (54%) urinary tract infection diagnostic criteria were defined with a total of 10 definitions among these studies. None of the overactive bladder studies used a definition which met the EAU (European Association of Urology) criteria for urinary tract infection. Only 2 of the 10 studies on patients with neurogenic bladder used a urinary tract infection definition consistent with the NIDRR (National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research) standards.


Definitions of urinary tract infection are heterogeneous and frequently absent in the literature on onabotulinumtoxinA to treat overactive bladder and/or neurogenic bladder. Given the potential for post-procedure urinary symptoms in this setting, explicit criteria are imperative to establish the true urinary tract infection rate following treatment with onabotulinumtoxinA.

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