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Prostate biopsy complications have important consequences that may affect patient compliance with rebiopsy schemes. However, to our knowledge this has not been studied in earnest. Thus, we evaluated whether previous prostate biopsy related complications and the type of complication were associated with repeat prostate biopsy compliance in a clinical trial with study mandated systematic biopsies.We retrospectively analyzed the records of 4,939 men 50 to 75 years old who underwent 2-year prostate biopsy and were recommended to undergo 4-year prostate rebiopsy in the REDUCE (Reduction by Dutasteride of Prostate Cancer Events) study. The analyzed biopsy complications were hematuria, urinary tract infection, acute urinary retention and hemospermia.A total of 260 men (5.3%) had a 2-year prostate biopsy related complication, including hematuria in 180 (3.6%), urinary tract infection in 36 (0.7%), acute urinary retention in 26 (0.5%) and hemospermia in 102 (2.1%). A total of 474 men (9.6%) were noncompliant with 4-year rebiopsy. On univariable analysis any previous complication (OR 1.56, 95% CI 1.08–2.24, p = 0.018), urinary tract infection (OR 2.72, 95% CI 1.23–6.00, p = 0.013), acute urinary retention (OR 4.24, 95% CI 1.83–9.81, p = 0.016) and hemospermia (OR 1.78, 95% CI 1.03–3.06, p = 0.037) were associated with rebiopsy noncompliance. Hematuria was not associated with rebiopsy noncompliance (OR 1.19, 95% CI 0.74–1.91, p = 0.483). Results were unchanged on multivariable analysis, including for any complication (OR 1.65, 95% CI 1.08–2.26, p = 0.018), for urinary tract infection (OR 2.62, 95% CI 1.07–3.21, p = 0.029), for acute urinary retention (OR 4.51, 95% CI 1.93–10.54, p = 0.001), for hemospermia (OR 1.85, 95% CI 1.07–3.21, p = 0.029) and for hematuria (OR 1.19, 95% CI 0.74–1.93, p = 0.472).In men who undergo repeat prostate biopsy a previous biopsy related complication and the type of complication were associated with lower compliance with rebiopsy schemes. Patients who experience biopsy related complications are ideal candidates to receive intervention regarding the importance of prostate rebiopsy to prevent noncompliance.