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We sought to determine clinicopathological factors associated with early progression in men on androgen deprivation therapy as well as cancer specific and overall survival. We also assessed whether certain prostate specific antigen thresholds at androgen deprivation therapy initiation are associated with poorer outcomes.We identified 2,418 men with rising prostate specific antigen after undergoing radical prostatectomy at a single institution between 1987 and 2007 in a prospectively maintained registry. Early progression was defined as clinical progression within 2 years of initiating androgen deprivation therapy. The primary study outcome was cancer specific and overall survival.The risk of early progression while on androgen deprivation therapy was lower for prostate specific antigen doubling time 3 to less than 9 months (OR 0.19) and less than 9 months or longer (OR 0.10, each p <0.001) prior to androgen deprivation therapy. Independent predictors of cancer specific survival were metastatic disease at androgen deprivation therapy initiation (HR 2.60), prostate specific antigen 5 to 50 ng/ml (HR 2.68) and 50 ng/ml or greater (HR 4.33), and doubling time 3 to less than 9 months (HR 0.54) and 9 months or longer (HR 0.45, all p <0.001). Independent predictors of overall survival were prostate specific antigen 5 to 50 ng/ml (HR 3.10) and 50 ng/ml or greater (HR 5.20, each p <0.001).In men in whom androgen deprivation therapy was initiated for relapse after radical prostatectomy prostate specific antigen doubling time less than 3 months and prostate specific antigen 5 ng/ml or greater were adverse prognostic factors for early progression and cancer specific survival. Prostate specific antigen 5 ng/ml or greater also predicted shorter overall survival. Longer doubling time and prostate specific antigen less than 5 ng/ml were associated with lower risk and these men may not require immediate androgen deprivation therapy.