Inosine triphosphatase (ITPA) genetic variants are strongly associated with ribavirin (RBV)-induced anaemia during pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN) plus RBV therapy. However, the treatment efficacy of ITPA genetic variants has not been fully explored. We enrolled 309 individuals infected with hepatitis C virus genotype 1, who were treated with PEG-IFN plus RBV for 48 weeks. The ITPA SNP: rs1127354 and IL28B SNP: rs8099917 were genotyped. We examined the risk factors for severe anaemia up to week 12 after the start of treatment and treatment efficacy. The incidence of severe anaemia, ≥3 g/dL reduction or <10 g/dL of haemoglobin (Hb) up to week 12, was more frequent in patients with CC at rs1127354 [65% (145/224), 33% (73/224)] than in those with CA/AA [25% (21/85), 6% (8/85)] (P < 0.0001). ITPA genotype, pretreatment Hb level and age were independent predictive factors for severe anaemia: Hb < 10 g/dL. In IL28B favourable type, the sustained virologic response rate was higher in ≥60-year-old patients with CA/AA than in those with CC [71% (22/31) vs 40% (26/65), P = 0.005], although there was no significant difference in treatment efficacy according to ITPA genetic variants in the <60-year-old patients. The proportion of patients administered ≥80% of the dosage of RBV was significantly higher in the patients with CA/AA than in those with CC (P = 0.025), resulting in a lower relapse rate. In conclusion, ITPA genetic variants were associated with severe RBV-induced anaemia and could influence the efficacy of PEG-IFN plus RBV treatment among elderly patients with IL28B favourable type.