Pulmonary Edema as a Complication of Transcatheter Embolization of Renal Angiomyolipoma in a Patient with Pulmonary Lymphangioleiomyomatosis Due to Tuberous Sclerosis Complex

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Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal-dominant disorder characterized by seizures, mental retardation, and various hamartomatous lesions, including renal angiomyolipoma (AML) and pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis. A 22-year-old woman with TSC presented with multiple renal AMLs exceeding 4 cm in diameter. She underwent two transcatheter embolization procedures with a mixture of ethanol and iodized oil. She complained of dyspnea and minor hemoptysis 4 and 6 hours after the procedure. Findings on chest radiographs and computed tomographic images were indicative of pulmonary edema. The patient was treated with conservative therapy. The possible causes of the pulmonary edema are discussed in the text.

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