Survival Outcomes and Prognostic Factors of Transcatheter Arterial Chemoembolization for Hepatic Neuroendocrine Metastases

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To report survival outcomes in patients with neuroendocrine tumor (NET) with hepatic metastasis who were treated by transcatheter arterial chemoembolization and determine prognostic factors that affect clinical outcome.

Materials and Methods

Patients with NET with hepatic metastasis who underwent chemoembolization between April 2002 and July 2011 were included in this single-center, retrospective study. Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were calculated by Kaplan–Meier method. The influence of possible prognostic factors on survival was analyzed by log-rank method and multivariate Cox proportional-hazards method.


Forty-six patients with hepatic metastasis from nonpancreatic NETs (npNETs; n = 24) or pancreatic NETs (pNETs; n = 22) were included. The median PFS and OS times for the entire group were 16.2 and 38.6 months, respectively, and response rate was 58.1%. Patients with npNET had a similar PFS (17.4 mo vs 15.3 mo) and longer OS (55.0 mo vs 27.6 mo) compared with those with pNET, but there were no significant differences in PFS and OS between groups (P = .398 and P = .375, respectively). By univariate analysis, enterobiliary communication, hepatic tumor burden, and extrahepatic metastasis before the first chemoembolization were significant prognostic factors for poor OS (P = .001, P = .010, and P<.0001, respectively). By multivariate analysis, the same prognostic factors were significant and had relative risks of 4.63, 2.71, and 5.09, respectively.


Transcatheter arterial chemoembolization is an effective treatment modality for hepatic metastasis from NETs, with a median OS of 38.6 months and response rate of 58%. Enterobiliary communication, large hepatic tumor burden, and extrahepatic metastasis were significant risk factors for poor survival outcome.

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